The cost and availability of critical metals and other minerals used in batteries, such as lithium, cobalt and nickel, remain a concern, though. A steep rise in E.V. production could push up prices of raw materials and cause shortages.
Ford’s chief executive, Jim Farley, told analysts in a conference call last month that at best, only 50 percent of the raw materials needed to meet the auto industry’s announced E.V. targets were actually available.
G.M. and Ford recently struck deals with mining companies to purchase lithium and other battery materials. Ford has also decided to use two types of batteries, requiring different materials, and reached an agreement to buy battery packs from a Chinese company, CATL, the world’s largest producer.
G.M. has said it has secured access to all the battery raw materials it needs to produce one million E.V.s in North America in 2025, and Ford says it has deals to provide 70 percent of the batteries it will need to make two million E.V.s a year by the end of 2026.
But how those companies and other automakers will obtain enough materials for an all-electric lineup remains unclear.
Another concern is the availability of charging stations. In most states, stations are few and far between, and vast parts of rural areas have none at all. Home charging stations can reduce the need for commercial chargers, but they can cost an E.V. owner $1,000 or more.